2003. Accessed 2017 Mar 6. Natural variation in precipitation influences snowmelt timing and the seasonal distribution of streamflow. Future changes in climate will alter Montana’s hydrology. Policies and Notices, U.S. Department of the Interior | Climatic Change 102(1-2):287-317. Winter and spring precipitation, coupled with seasonal patterns of solar radiation, heavily influence streamflow in these rivers. However, where limestone layers are within 500-900 ft (150-270 m) of the land surface, the Madison Limestone aquifer is a productive and important source of domestic, municipal, industrial, and stock water. In addition, warm-water fishes (e.g., smallmouth bass [Micropterus dolomieu]) have been caught with increasing frequency in historically cold sections of some rivers, such as the Yellowstone River near Livingston. 2013. Our focal rivers were selected to represent differences in streamflow regimes across Montana’s climate divisions. Cook BI, Smerdon JE, Seager R, Coats S. 2014. About half of the total annual flow in typical Montana streams derives from groundwater (MT DNRC 2015). 2015. Mean annual precipitation for the years 1981-2010 from Daymet. Role of surface-water and groundwater interactions on projected summertime streamflow in snow dominated regions: an integrated modeling approach. Rood SB, Pan J, Gill KM, Franks CG, Samuelson GM, Shepherd A. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(6):821-34. Present-day and future contributions of glacier runoff to summertime flows in a Pacific Northwest watershed: implications for water resources. The influence of climate on snowpack is one of the major linkages between climate change and water supply. Total annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly for most Montana rivers, but the magnitude of change across the state and agreement among models vary. Extent of the rain-snow transition zone in the western US under historic and projected climate. cooperation between legislators, planners, scientists, managers and water users across the state; a water use system that is flexible and able to adapt to changes in timing of water supply; a focus on other means for natural and artificial storage of water for use during times of high demand; and, explicitly addressing the issue of water use and demand in conjunction with best data on climate and water supply, US Bureau of Reclamation. US Bureau of Reclamation. Elle s'utilise aussi bien 167 p. Available online http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/management/docs/state-water-plan/clar.... Accessed 2017 May 8. Implications of projected climate change for groundwater recharge in the western United States. Climate factors associated with naturalized streamflow in four Montana river basins. In addition, we know that groundwater-surface water interactions are central for projecting climate change impacts on water resources, particularly in snowmelt-dominated watersheds. Pederson et al. 2010; USDA-NASS 2015). 2005). Moreover, the particular effects of projected changes in temperature and precipitation on flood risk will depend on location, elevation, and antecedent weather conditions, as well as human practices that impact flooding. Groundwater is one of Montana’s most valuable natural resources: a) it is often the only source of water for domestic use outside of municipalities, either for individual homes or small public water supplies; b) it provides water for livestock production and agriculture in the certain parts of the state; and c) it plays a critical role in sustaining streamflow throughout the year (in a typical Montana stream, groundwater contributes 50% of the annual flow [MT DNRC 2015]). 2013. (2011b) reported no recent change in annual streamflow for a number of rivers in the northern Rocky Mountains, including in Montana, despite significant reductions in snowpack. Thus, identifying the most important factors that influence annual streamflow in each basin can help us understand how changing climate may influence future water supplies. The earlier streamflow peak, centered in March-April, results from early snowmelt as low-elevation prairies thaw. Indeed, increased spring precipitation in recent years has apparently prevented what would otherwise be large snow-related declines in hydrologic yield (Pederson et al. Coastal Water Temperature Guide (CWTG) To display water temperatures in a region of your interest: Select it from the side menu at left, or, Select it from a Google Map-based Web page, or,; Point and click on the region shown on the map below. 2013; Sheffield et al. Thus, understanding current trends and potential changes in warm- season drought is essential for building water resource resilience in Montana. Probable causes of the abnormal ridge accompanying the 2013–2014 California drought: ENSO precursor and anthropogenic warming footprint. Flood moderation: declining peak flows along some Rocky Mountain rivers and the underlying mechanism. April 1 is considered an optimal date for examining trends because it is the most continuously collected date in the observational record; some sites have been recorded continuously for over 80 yr (Mote et al. Available online, [WRCC] Western Regional Climate Center. The decrease in water levels from 1995-2005 suggested that wells were removing water from the aquifer faster than it was being replenished. Figure courtesy Montana Climate Office. Hot water temperature code, laws & regulations listed by authority, country, state or province. Flooding.—While drought likely represents the greatest persistent water-resource concern in Montana, flooding has also occurred regularly throughout the state’s history, resulting in loss of life and substantial damage to property, infrastructure, and riparian ecosystems. Changes in river levels are measured by hydrographs. Water temperature is critical because it is an important quality in environmental parameters. Surface water and groundwater are managed as a single resource in Montana and both are subject to restriction based on the water rights doctrine of prior appropriation. This section will address both, Studies of tree-ring-based reconstructions of drought, snowpack, and streamflow offer important insights about the long-term history of drought, as well as the natural variability of climate over the last millennium (Jackson et al. And Celsius groundwater-surface water interactions are central for projecting future climate scenarios in Montana, more than 900 (! 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