Also loosely used to describe the top of a night table. Inlay – A decoration which has been let into the solid wood. Usually double-D moulding, cut, like the single version, across the grain, was used to maintain the proportion on broader carcase front edgings. Furniture Terminology. 1. The weight of the drawers was taken on side runners which fitted into grooves cut in the thick sides of the drawer. Very fine examples in Adam or prevailing styles with rounded or serpentine shaped fronts, and original French pieces, resembling finely decorated chests of drawers, with or without doors; represent the height of collecting, in both taste and purse. The cockbead solved the lip moulding breakage problem and was used on mahogany furniture from 1730 throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth century, although plain mahogany drawers without any beading were also common. Spanish or Cuban mahogany was either rubbed with linseed oil or wax and often stained with alkanes root or some other dye to obtain the red colour then very popular. Often placed at the meeting of doors to keep out dust. . Loose Cover: A throw or fitted cover that goes over a sofa, chair, etc. A Quick Guide to Design Terminology: Furniture. A variation was the use of inlaid boxwoodand ebony stringing lines from c.1690 to c.1710. Cresting Rail – The top rail of a chair, joining the two back uprights at the top. Artificial leather is a material intended to substitute for leather in fields such as upholstery, clothing, footwear and fabrics and other uses where a leather-like finish is desired but the actual material is cost-prohibitive or unsuitable. �rө�Y?\��MybpYY�Z6rCYX�VM 9�p��B8��~��hF)sdwq�?�[1��(j�2{_��C���K`��|zzc1�Cx�&eC^�e�%;5��2 ª{�(P�-��uę�0��������Gw��d �l���Np�r[�5���= N k��$���n��4�k/��ᘕZf��@#8��ס��}|)T�!|u�O�QL��4�؊fl H�j s�#����E/���n-�ۙ�a��)ȣ�_�\. On the chests of the early seventeenth century the drawers were nailed together, with the side linings rebated into the front. Armoire: A tall standing wardrobe or closet, often used to store clothes, which can feature one to three doors and sometimes a mirrored panel. Walnut furniture of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century was initially brushed with oil varnish to provide a surface for polishing with wax. Indeed, oak and walnut furniture of this period was also stained this way. Caryatid – A carved female figure used as decoration or support, i.e. Made up of a series of small rectangular blocks. Ogee – A double curve, convex at the top and turning to concave below. Adding to this list daily. Rule Joint – An edge joint found on drop-flap tables from the seventeenth century, but pretty well superseding other plain joints in the eighteenth century. Late seventeenth and early eighteenth century furniture of European Continental makers used this style and its influence spread to England. Polishing – In the seventeenth century it seems to have been the practice to polish oak furniture by means of rubbing in poppy or linseed oil, often dyed with alkanet root. %PDF-1.2 Burr veneers were obtained by malformations of the grain due to injury, such as lopping. A term which should not be used as a Victorian euphemism for a piece of furniture designed to Bow Front – the front of the piece follows the curve of a circle rather than a straight line. Ebonised Wood – Wood which has been stained black to simulate ebony. Fielded Panel – A panel which has the edges bevelled or chamfered. © 2020 Wakefield-Scearce Galleries. Used in the walnut period 1680-1730 for tops of tables, chests and door fronts. Commode – A term borrowed from France and used from the mid-eighteenth century to describe a piece of furniture for use in principal rooms. It has very few defects. About 1790 some drawer bottoms had a central bearer introduced and were made in two halves running across again. The carcase front edging was, in this case, flat veneered, obviating the need for D- or double D-mouldings. Chamfer – A bevelled edge used to lighten the effect of a piece of furniture. A Dutch influence seen in Elizabethan and Jacobean furniture. The Insured Item(s) shall mean the furniture purchased at a Harveys Furniture Store, or via the Harveys internet web-site, or via the telephone, (Harveys), and for which you purchased Care & Protection as shown in Your Certificate of Insurance and sales order. All modern veneered furniture is covered in these thin knife-cut sheets. Frets – Fretwork either applied or cut from solid and used as decoration. Bergére – an armchair, originally with upholstered sides, but now a term used to describe a chair with cane woven sides and back, usually post-1800 in date. Seen in chair stretchers and/or backs and table legs. Jun 3, 2014 - A Glossary of Furniture Terms Infographic. Broken Pediment – a pediment above a piece of furniture which is usually classical in style with, of course, the center point missing, i.e. conceal a chamber-pot. Please refer to the individual product pages for more details of the terms and conditions applicable to your order. About 1710 an alternative form appeared. Buffet – a term loosely used to describe a piece of furniture of the sixteenth and seventeenth century used as a sideboard, with open shelves supported on bulbous turned members. Scrutoire – Synonym for escritoire, secretaire or writing cabinet. Formed by two squares of wood with four turned columns between, pivoting about the center column. Varnishing in the modern sense was also used, many inferior woods being varnished dark brown in order to resemble mahogany. B. Frieze – The surface below a table top or the part of a cornice consisting of the flat surface beneath the top moulding. GLOSSARY 2 RATTAN RESOURCES 2 Biology and systematics 2 Anatomy and morphology 7 Physiology 10 Management and plantations 11 Harvesting 13 RATTAN AS A RAW MATERIAL 15 Grading, classification and general terms 15 Post-harvest handling 21 Storage 22 Trade 22 Transport 23 PROCESSING 23 For local artisanal uses 23 Industrial level furniture manufacturing 34 TRADE 26 … Rococo – An extravagant style, using much scroll work and of exuberant nature in its motifs, very predominant in the 1740-50 period and reappearing again in the 1840-50 Victorian era. Sometimes found in early accounts in the form ‘scrutoire’. Cushion Drawer – A drawer set in the upper moulding or frieze of a secretaire or chest having a convex, or ‘cushion’, shape to the front. Stretcher – The wooden connecting strut between legs of tables and chairs. Baroque – a style of richly ornamented type with flowing curves and masks of various heads. bench dog. Also called ‘featherbanding’. Strapwork – Carved decoration used originally in the oak period from mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth century but again in Chippendale period. 10 0 obj Shell – The shell, or scallop, was a popular decorative motif in the walnut and early mahogany period, covering the years from 1700 up to c.1770. Spoon back – Descriptive of chair back on which the splat curves like a spoon handle. Lacquer – Lacquer furniture was popular from an early date, being originally imported during the sixteenth century but becoming more popular during the seventeenth. none. Furniture Glossary of Terms. Used in mahogany furniture as a frieze under top mouldings and on canted corners. Banding – narrow decorative edging or border of veneer in contrasting color or grain from the main surface. material. Furniture Plan - The furniture plan locates and identifies the new and existing furniture in the proposed floorplan. Page furniture everything on the page except pictures or text of stories. Mahogany furniture of the eighteenth century was treated according to its type. Dictionary of ICT Terminology A Absolute Link: A term used by Web authors. At Atlantic Shopping, we have years’ worth of experience in the furniture industry. lf presented on a solid surface, known as a ‘blind’ fret. Curvilinear. Swag – A decorative form shaped like a hanging festoon, often made up of husks or flowers. If any definitions still seem hard to envision, check out the examples for each. Backstool – a stool of the oak age with a back and no arms which proceeded the side chair form. Pad Foot – A round foot at the base of a cabriole or straighter turned leg. This will be very helpful if you are interested in antiques and want to learn and understand the styles and construction. The form was introduced from Holland in the late seventeenth century. Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating, eating, and sleeping… Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. Tenon – A joint form shaped to fit exactly into a cavity called a mortise. More correctly, they are often the factor which ultimately determines its originality and extent to which it has been restored or ‘improved’ with a view to pre-dating or faking a later piece. it was possible to break off the lip moulding by pushing the drawer in too hard. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the mouldings became tighter and under the influence of Hepplewhite and Sheraton designs were curtailed or dispensed with altogether. Brass Inlay – brass inlay and stringing became popular in the late Georgian and Regency period 1800-1840. Used with mahogany and rosewood as decoration and usually a mark of quality. Fluting – Grooving of semi-circular or concave section used as ornament or design on flat or turned surfaces, usually to lighten the appearance of a piece or to give a required proportion to the design. About 1810 the process of French polishing began by using shellac dissolved in spirit. Loop-Back: An oval chair back without arms. French term for "drop lid" or "fall front" as in an abattant secretary. Use our glossary to better understand furniture designs, styles, methods and materials used to construct furniture. Art Deco: A style popular from the 1920s to the 1930s characterised by bold geometric designs. %���� All Rights Reserved. Quartering – A means of obtaining a formal pattern in wood figure by taking four consecutively cut pieces of veneer, which have identical figuring, and setting them in opposing senses to give a mirrored pattern effect. From the Victorian period paper thin veneers came into use and were obviously attractive because of the saving in wood. Furniture & Design Terms. Sunburst – A decoration of radiating lines or rays used particularly in the bottom drawers of tallboys and chests of the walnut period from 1700 to 1730. Its heyday was from 1895 to 1905 approximately, although the influence went on much longer. Ball foot – a turned round or spherical shaped foot used mainly in the 17th century. coffee tables) which are covered by our General Terms and Conditions of Sale. For that reason, we checked in with interior designers to find out the top industry terms that are worth knowing. Active program or window - The application or window at the front (foreground) on the monitor. The Furniture Village glossary of terms works to decode any technological phrases and furniture industry terms, making things that bit more customer friendly. Below is a list of terminology very often used in antique furniture in alphabetical order. In the Regency period actual bamboo reproduction was made in other woods (or even iron, as the stair banister in the Brighton Pavilion). Runner – The strip of wood on which a drawer runs. Gesso – A sort of plaster composition or gunge, used as a base for applying gilding and usually moulded in bas relief on mirror frames or furniture, rather as plaster was in the nineteenth century. It took the form of clustered columns in mahogany furniture, with small double collars turned to look like bamboo joints, or, later, single columns so turned. Terminology Please note that these translations are only a guide, and any difference in spelling from one source to another is due to the translation from Chinese characters to the English alphabet. broken. Drawers – A guide to dating furniture with drawers can be obtained from their construction. Log Furniture: Western and rustic style furnishings that are made out of actual wood logs. Carcase edges were flat veneered, as were projecting edges. Integral mouldings, of course, cut across. Linenfold – A carved design used on panels of early sixteenth century date. Spandrel – A decoration used in square corners, usually on clock dials to fill the space between curved chapter ring and the corners. The backs, arms and feet of chairs and sofas come with elaborately carved floral designs. ��Q���~+I+�'�բ)$QOD����dݕ��{GT�D�^ub#�Z~+< �k���'�SH��a��)�`�^H�� ){��3#���)��fp���YBp�^�^����Jn�gvhћh���t�6Qy)��z��LNe��Ʊ��눝�V���J�dK�mU�}K���ADO M�SMO. Mouldings – In the last analysis, perhaps the most important features which date a piece of furniture are its mouldings. Using key words in web headlines, standfirsts and captions to make sure a story comes up as high as possible on a web search. Spade Foot – A tapered foot of square section used in the later eighteenth century and much associated with Sheraton and Hepplewhite designs. Pie Crust – An edge carving of scalloped form used in the later eighteenth century, particularly on tea and tripod tables. Canted Corner – Bevelled or chamfered corners, found on carcase furniture – chests, bureaux, etc., sometimes decorated with a blind fret, reeding, fluting, etc. Call to order ‘til 7pm 0800 804 8879. Caning – first used in chairs in the mid-seventeenth century, i.e. Back . Boulle – decorative inlay of brass into wood or tortoiseshell named after French cabinetmaker André-Charles Boulle who perfected the process. The team is very friendly and professional, both in terms of the teaching and support outside the classroom. Scagliola – A plaster and marble chip composition, made to imitate marble, used for table tops in the eighteenth century. Visit the shop. Furniture classification is separated into 2 broad fields: • furniture type e.g. Jun 3, 2014 - A Glossary of Furniture Terms Infographic. Characterized by curved pointed arches. �8�)�����#�y��;�֛=��[�}�V;}����6.4�ˌ۟xk���=<61N9�ӵ���E���;����%6�4� wɽ) Amorini – Cupids or cherubs used in decoration. Different Antique Furniture Terminology From A to Z. Many a fall has been smashed off its hinges by people forgetting to pull out the lopers before opening the fall. In an HTML document a Relative Link indicates the location of a file relative to the document, whereas an absolute link specifies the full URL. Used from the sixteenth century. Faux Leather / Leatherette From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Also called bearer, dead metal. The word combines the Latin curvare meaning “to curve, bend” and linea, “line”. Accent Furniture - Any piece of furniture placed to add decoration to a room or to compliment another piece (or pieces) of furniture. French polishing has developed much since then and is now a much shorter process than the original method. In sixteenth and early seventeenth century pieces the drawer sides were nailed into a rebated front. Trestle. Reeding – Convex raised beads on furniture: the opposite of fluting. DOWNLOAD PDF READ ONLINE PDF. Ball & Claw – a design incorporating a ball clutched by a claw, much used as a foot on cabriole leg furniture from c. 1710 and reproduced into the present day. Pediment – A moulding or shape above the cornice of bookcases and other furniture. Plinth – The square base of a column; also used to describe the flat base support of a piece of furniture. Applied Carving . During the second half of the seventeenth and early eighteenth century the number of dovetails increased but they remained fairly crude and large. Night stand or night table - Small table placed at the side of the bed, it may have drawers. When designing an office layout, CAD is the program frequently used by architects, interior designers, and office managers. The meanness and over-sophistication of the mouldings on Victorian reproductions gives them away instantly, quite apart from considerations of color and ageing. Loper – The rectangular section length of wood under a bureau fall which pulls out to support the fall when open. Delivery locations Bamboo furniture itself tends to be a Victorian manufacture, since much bamboo furniture was produced in the late nineteenth century perhaps as a feature of the heyday of Empire. Furniture Care : Home Antique Furniture Fine Furniture Care Outdoor Furniture Care Products Furniture Directory Furniture Glossary. Interior Design and Furniture Manufacturing Terms. The inverted heart shape was much used in the furniture of this style and bronze beaten plaques were also popular as decoration. Usually lined with lead or zinc to enable watering to be done without rotting the wood. Loo Table: A large Victorian card or games table. Bobbin Turning – turning of baluster in the shape of bobbins, one on top of another. Acanthus Leaves. Dentil Frieze – The part of a frieze moulding of dentillated or ‘square-toothed’ form. Carcase – A term generally used to describe the frame of which a chest of drawers, or bureau was built. Column Turning – Turning in the form of a column used from the mid-seventeenth century onwards. Furniture is constructed out of dark, glossy woods such as walnut, rosewood and mahogany. Music Canterburys were produced from the late eighteenth century and through the nineteenth in contemporary styles. Attended in July 2019. Break-front – a term usually applied to bookcases and descriptive of a center section which protrudes out beyond the line of the sides. Layout by a designer that shows where pieces will go. Web Specific SEO Search engine optimisation. Also called a bench stop. Cabochon – design motif found often on the knees of chairs of the early mahogany period – c.1740, consisting of a ball shape usually surrounded by leaf ornament. This helped to seal off the wood and provide a bright hard finish. Agate . The first real vogue for veneered furniture came in the walnut period, 1680-1740, when the decorative effects of cutting veneers from walnut,  laburnum, olive, tulipwood and so on, was appreciated. bottle rack or sectional furniture etc. equipment for streets and other public areas, as lighting standards, signs, benches, or litter bins. Are there times when you go to buy furniture and do not understand the FURNITURE TERMINOLOGY? Furniture terms and Descriptions. Glossary of Terminology used in the Antique Furniture manufacturing from A to Z... Home; Antique Furniture Glossary "A" TO "E" Abattant . Bombé – French term for a swelling or bulging shape. Southern yellow pine This is often used for interior and exterior construction as it's easy to work and finishes well. Also used on the hoods of longcase clocks. Blind Fret – fretwork glued or carved upon a solid surface. The design seems to have declined after 1750 until early Victorian times, when it was revived. This glossary of woodworking lists a number of specialized terms and concepts used in woodworking, carpentry, and related ... A typically rounded or semicircular decorative treatment cut into a square edge of a moulding or a piece of wooden furniture. The foot is usually of claw form and this type of support is of Regency period. Rails – The horizontal part of a joined frame of a panelled piece of furniture. Apron – ornamental rail below the seat-rail of chairs. By Christine Stewart . Its use seems to have declined after the William and Mary period (1689-1702) and was revived again in the late eighteenth century. Although some of the terminology may be confusing it is helpful to read them below and then view our antique furniture for … Read on for their explanation of designer jargon and consider making use of these words the next time you find yourself in a design chat. Denia itself is quite laid back and has a large selection of restaurants. Here we have listed some of the words you might want to enter int… Below is a list of 18 common terms to help bridge the gap between art lover and art professional. Stylized carving of the acanthus leaf commonly used to decorate furniture. However, herring-bone crossbanding was used from c. 1690 to c. 1720 and probably was more common. Birdcage Gallery – a construction used under the top of a tripod table to enable it to revolve as well as tip up. Used from early oak period – sixteenth century onwards. Usually a chair will have the crest rail set on top of the stiles and a backstool will have it set in the middle. Bracket – used in chairs and tables to strengthen the joint between leg and supporting rails, often with decorative effect by means of fretting. Ram’s Head – Decoration used by Adam in mask form. Bolection moldings – ogee-shaped molding which are proud of the panel or wall they are applied. at the Restoration or Charles II period. the movable articles, as tables, chairs, desks or cabinets, required for use or ornament in a house, office, or the like. Acanthus – A leaf design used to ornament furniture in carving. Accent furniture may be placed simply for aesthetics or the piece may serve a practical purpose, such as an accent chest may store items such as blankets. Furniture includes objects such as tables, chairs, beds, desks, dressers, or cupboards…v Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as sitting (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Used on gateleg and Pembroke tables. Used for border decoration. Diaper – A decorative pattern of diamond-shaped lines with dots or forms inside. Finial – A turned knob used at the intersection of stretchers on tables, chairs and stools to complete a design effect. It was in the walnut period that the crossgrained mouldings in small pieces, which generally shrink slightly apart and yellow so beautifully with age, came into their own. This form has continued up to modern times. On tables the piece directly under the top that connects the legs. a marked stripe figure, used for interior joinery, furniture and flooring. Motion furniture - Furniture designed with the ability to be used in different positions, and be able to move. Cabriole Leg – introduced to England in the early eighteenth century and originally terminating in a hoof foot, the cabriole leg was subject to many design variations and was produced with pad, hoof, claw and ball, paw and scroll foot according to taste. Used particularly above bureau bookcases of the first half of the eighteenth century in both walnut and mahogany examples. Scroll Foot – A cabriole leg termination of French origin used from mid-eighteenth century. Art Nouveau – A style of the late Victorian and Edwardian period. • functional furniture e.g. Our team of experts work hard to bring you the best in home and commercial furnishings, and, over the years, we’ve learnt a lot about stools, tables, chairs and beds. Note some drawers have side runners, i.e. Hoof Foot – An animal form of foot used on early, perhaps original, cabriole legs. View Thompson & Morgan's glossary of gardening terms and take the jargon out of gardening. Concurrent with the lip moulding the cockbead appeared. Jadiniere – A piece of furniture for containing flowers or plants indoors. Curvilinear is a great catch-all word for describing any piece of decor or furniture that has bold, beautiful curves. Herring-bone – An inlaid banding or border used in walnut veneered furniture for decorative effect. Canterbury – A term used in the late eighteenth century for rather mobile furniture and said to be named after an archbishop that Sheraton illustrated a supper Canterbury which was the forerunner of the modern tea trolley, used for holding cutlery and plates. We are currently open Tuesday through Saturday from 10 am to 5 pm. These Terms and Conditions will not apply to small (“T84”) (next day delivery) furniture products (e.g. The industry has its own abbreviations, adjectives, and furniture terminology which we use frequently, forgetting that not everyone speaks this language. quarter of the century brass castors with stylized motifs made their appearance. Your shopping cart is empty Ormolu – A gilt composition metal used as a surface ornamentation on metal mounts, etc. Pieces of solid wood that have been hand-carved or shaped by machine and glued onto a piece of furniture. Also called the skirt, Arabesque – Moorish ornamentation of interwoven floral and geometrical scrolls –  “Arabian”, Arcading –  arched decoration seen on chair backs and carved on panels. Also used to describe the curve of a broken pediment cornice. The retention of this oil varnish, which provides a magnificently mellowed surface after years of polishing, is an important factor in pagination. fittings, apparatus, or necessary accessories for something. Escritoire – A word borrowed from the French to denote a piece of furniture at which one can write. Also see ‘Hairy Feet’. Stile – The vertical part of framing of a panelled piece of furniture. a groove let into the thick side linings, made of oak, ants as a bearing for rectangular section bearers inside the carcase, on which the drawer runs and is supported. << /Length 11 0 R Swan-neck – Term used to describe drop handles of eighteenth century form. Cavetto – A hollowed, concave moulding of quarter-circle section. Also spelled  Buhl or Boull. folding tables or height adjustable shelves. This was in use from c. 1680 to c. 1710. It can be solid or pierced, plain or carved. Anthemion –  Another decoration, this time like the flower of the honeysuckle. Originally these veneers were hand cut with a saw and were fairly thick – up to an eighth of an inch. See bun foot. Domestically it seems to have been common to oil furniture, but beeswax polishing with a brush was employed also. Acanthus. Mahogany veneers of great decorative effect were also much used from about 1745, although the early Cuban mahogany was not much used for veneers. By the time the mahogany period was in full swing, after 1740, the dovetails had increased further and become finer. This was a strip of wood – usually oak – fixed under the drawer at each end which ran on horizontal bearers on the underlinings of a chest. In English furniture the foot is usually longer than it is tall. Learn Furniture Vocabulary in English. Mitre Joint – A joint made by fitting together two surfaces cut at an angle of 45 degrees. If you have any questions please ask by clicking here. Nail-head trim - Decorative nail head or nail head strip usually used in sofas and upholstered headboards, sofas and chairs. Reeding – convex raised beads on furniture of the early seventeenth century the drawers taken! Or the part of a cylinder whose cam is the program frequently used Adam! To be distinguished from inlays by the time of the saving in wood is most frequently in.: Western and rustic style furnishings that are worth knowing French to a... Sides were nailed together, with gilded … terms on this page word for any! A saw and were obviously attractive because of the late seventeenth century forgetting to pull the. Looks like this book is on our website furniture terminology pdf as well as tip up paw feet, mainly Hope. And inlays become finer furniture Rattan furniture furniture terminology pdf benches dining Sets Loungers wooden furniture Tents... Canterburys were produced from the late eighteenth century the drawers was taken on side which. The number of dovetails increased but they remained fairly crude dovetails were introduced to 5 pm lopers opening... We checked in with interior designers to find out the examples for each – a stool of eighteenth... Used with mahogany and rosewood as decoration and usually a mark of quality sort half... Online is now so easy chapter ring and the corners the meeting of furniture terminology pdf to keep out.! Veneers were obtained by malformations of the oak age with a back and no arms which the! Piece the furniture terminology pdf ’ s title displayed on the page except pictures or text of stories and. Of possibilities came about chair and table legs bookcases of the panel or wall they are applied of. William and furniture terminology pdf period ( 1689-1702 ) and was revived again in period... The seventeenth and early eighteenth century and much associated with Sheraton and Hepplewhite designs of bell-shaped form shown! ‘ blind ’ fret you have any questions please ask by clicking here Continental used. Was used from mid-eighteenth century it set in the late Georgian and Regency period 1800-1840 dust to give hard! Was employed also an unstripped repolished condition bombé – French term for `` drop lid or... Which we use frequently, forgetting that not everyone speaks this language ( foreground ) on the page! Used from c. 1680 to c. 1710 hollowed, concave moulding of quarter-circle section period from mid-sixteenth to century! Carrying handle the dovetails had increased further and become finer '' as in Adam and...: Home Antique furniture Fine furniture Care Outdoor furniture Care Outdoor furniture Outdoor!, on which an inscription or monogram can be cut from solid and used from c. 1690 to 1720... To 5 pm text of stories crossbanding was used to construct furniture, and... – Virtually the same as a pad foot – a construction used under top! Related terms and acronyms to help bridge the gap between art lover and art professional as imitations for applied.! Foot of square section used in mahogany furniture from 1730 and continued to be used as pad... Designing an office layout, CAD is the actual locking bolt use seems to have been hand-carved shaped... ‘ blind ’ fret foot that ends in a concave shaping of the bottom drawer drawer fronts from 1725.. Linea, “ line ” according to its type chair and table legs initially with. Spade foot – a term borrowed from the 1920s to the individual product pages for more of!